Definitions of Technical Terms
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

"T" to "Ter", "Tes", "Thermb" to "Top", "Tor" to "Transf",
"Trans" to "Tre", "Triac" to "Tub", "Tun" to "Tz"

Torque. A measure of how much load a machine can turn. This measurement is expressed either in ounce-inches for torque synchro systems or in pound-feet for heavy machinery.

Torque Differential Receiver. [TDR] A type of differential synchro that takes two electrical inputs, one to the rotor and one to the stator, and produces a mechanical output. The output is the angular position of the rotor that represents the algebraic sum or difference of the two electrical inputs.

Torque Differential Synchro System. A synchro system containing either a TDX or a TDR. This system is used in applications where it is necessary to compare two signals, add or subtract the signals, and furnish an output proportional to the sum or difference between the two signals.

Torque Differential Transmitter. [TDX] This type of synchro is functionally the same as the CDX, except that it is used in torque systems rather than control systems.

Torque Gradient. A term used in the rating of torque synchros. It is expressed in the number of inch-ounces of torque required to pull a specific synchro 1 degree away from its normal position; for example, 0.4 inch-ounce per degree.

Torque Receiver. [TR] A type of synchro that converts the electrical input supplied to its stator back to a mechanical angular output through the movement of its rotor.

Torque Synchro System. A synchro system that uses torque synchros to move light loads such as dials, pointers, and other similar devices.

Torque Transmitter. [TX] This type of synchro is functionally the same as the CX, except that it is used in torque synchro systems.

Torque Vector. In a gyro, a vector representing the rotary motion applied to change the direction of the rotor axis. The torque vector represents the axis about which the applied force is felt.

Toroid. A Toroidal Inductor, a round shaped magnetic core with windings forming an inductor. The graphic shows a through-hole Toroidal choke Inductor, dual winding which is wound around the same core.

Total Harmonic Distortion. [THD] Of a signal, the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic frequencies above the fundamental frequency to the power of the fundamental frequency. The measure of closeness in shape between a waveform and its fundamental component. The ratio, expressed in percent, of the RMS voltage of all harmonics present in the output to the total RMS voltage of the output for a pure sine wave input. The RMS voltages are measured at an output terminal with respect to ground.

Total Resistance. (RT) The equivalent resistance of an entire circuit. For a series circuit: RT = R1 + R2 + R3 ...Rn. For parallel circuits: RT = 1/( 1/R1 + 1/R2).

Totem-Pole Output. A type of output structure used with integrated circuits in which one transistor drives the output high while another transistor connected below it pulls the output low. Depending on the structure of the IC, FETs could be used instead of transistors as shown in the graphic. Read more on Totem-Pole Outputs, with schematic diagrams.

FET Totem Pole Output

Totem-Pole Amplifier. A push-pull amplifier.

Tower. A style of personal computer that is higher rather than wider. A Tower case is the most common style of desk top computer. The size or height of a Tower PC is defined by the type of motherboard used and does not rely on a specification that defines the height. A platform used to rise the height of an antenna, as in an Antenna Tower.

PC Tower

Toxic Vapors.Vapors emitted by a substance that can do bodily harm.

TPMS. Tire Pressure Monitoring System. A system mandated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to automatically monitor tire pressure in vehicles.

TR Recovery Time. Time required for a fired tr or atr tube to deionize to a normal level of conductance.

Transconductance. Transconductance is a ratio of the change in plate current to a change in grid voltage with the plate voltage held constant. Transconductance (gm) is usually expressed in micromhos or millimhos.

Transceiver. A circuit that Transmits and Receives [Trans-Ceives] a signal on the same line. The diagram is a 4-bit wide digital transceiver in a 14-pin DIP package, with the input and output of each pair connected together. Note the symbols within the inverting drivers indicates a Schmitt Trigger.

Transducer. An instrument that converts shock and vibration or other phenomena to a corresponding electrical or mechanical signal. Also refer to Sensor Manufacturers which by definition uses Transducers.

Transfer Rate. The speed at which data is sent and received between two systems. The transfer rate may or may not be the same as the systems clock rate, if a clock is used. Because bus over-head is not accounted for in 'Transfer Rate' the actual through-put rate may be less [because of leading control words, framing words or CRC bytes].

Transformer. A device composed of two or more coils, linked by magnetic lines of force, used to transfer energy from one circuit to another. Refer here for more detail, Transformer Symbols.
[Transformer Manufacturer]

Transformer diagram
Transformer Symbol

Transformer Coupled Amplifier. One or more sections of a circuit that are coupled or connected to another circuit by means of a transformer. The primary of T1 acts as the load to transistor Q1, while the secondary of T1 acts as the source for Q2.

Transformer Efficiency. The ratio of output power to input power, generally expressed as a percentage.

Transformer Ratio. Refer to turns ratio.

Transformer, Step-Down. A transformer so constructed that the number of turns in the secondary winding is less than the number of turns in the primary winding. This construction will provide less voltage in the secondary circuit than in the primary circuit.

Transformer, Step-Up. A transformer so constructed that the number of turns in the secondary winding is more than the number of turns in the primary winding. This construction will provide more voltage in the secondary circuit than in the primary circuit.

PC motherboard

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