Technical Dictionary
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Na' to 'Nn', 'No' to 'Nor', 'Not' to 'Nz'

NAND. A logic function of A and B that is true if either A or B is false. A 7400 Glue logic function.

NAND Circuit. A combination of a NOT function and an AND function in a binary circuit that has two or more inputs and one output. The output is logic 0 only if ALL inputs are logic 1; it is logic 1 if ANY input is logic 0.

NAND Gate True Table
True Table, NAND Gate

NAND Gate. An integrated circuit that contains one or more gates that performs the NAND operation. An individual NAND gate may have two or more inputs; 2-input [7400], 3-input [7410], 4-input [7420], 8-input [7430].

Nano. One billionth, or 10 e-9. Refer to SI prefixes.

Narrow Band Amplifier. An amplifier which only functions over a narrow band of frequencies or is optimized for a limited band of frequencies.

Narrow Band FM. An FM signal that only uses a small portion of a normal FM channel, used for voice communication. Either NFM, NBFM.

Narrowband Signal. Any analog signal or analog representation of a digital signal whose essential spectral content is limited to that which can be contained within a voice channel of nominal 4-kHz bandwidth.

n-ary Code. A code that has n significant conditions, where n is a positive integer greater than one.

Natural Frequency. See Resonant Frequency.

Natural Horizon. The line-of-sight horizon.

N-Channel FET. A type of Field Effect Transistor, which is voltage controlled. Also refer to Field Effect Transistor.

Near End. The originating side of a circuit. The opposite of Far End [terminating side of a circuit].

Near-End Crosstalk. Crosstalk that is propagated in a disturbed channel in the direction opposite to the direction of propagation of a signal in the disturbing channel.

Near Synchronous Orbit. An orbit in which the satellite rotates close to but not exactly at the same speed as the earth.

Negate. The inversion of a function.

Negation. The process of inverting the value of a function or variable.

Negative Alteration. That part of a sine wave that is below the reference level.

Negative Bias. A voltage applied to an electrode of an electronic device which is negative with respect to ground.

Negative Clamper. A circuit that clamps the upper extremity of the output wave shape to a dc potential of 0 volts.

Negative Electrode. A terminal or electrode having more electrons than normal. Electrons flow out of the negative terminal of a voltage source.

Negative Feedback. Feedback in which a portion of a signal is returned to a previous section of the circuit and is out of phase with the input signal. Also called Degenerative Feedback. Negative feedback reduces the amplitude of the input signal by adding addig to the signal out of phase.

Negative Logic. The form of logic in which the more positive voltage level represents a logic 0, FALSE, or LOW and the more negative voltage represents a logic 1, TRUE, or HIGH.

Negative-Resistance. A component that has a current-voltage characteristic with a negative slope; the current decreases with increasing voltage.

Negative-Resistance Element. A component having an operating region in which an increase in the applied voltage increases the resistance and produces a proportional decrease in current. Examples include tunnel diodes and silicon unijunction transistors.

Negative Temperature Coefficient. The reduction in a components value as temperature is increased; a resistors values decreases with increasing temperature. A characteristic of a semiconductor material, such as silver sulfide, in which resistance to electrical current flow decreases as temperature increases.

Neon. A inert gas used in tubes, bulbs or signs.

Neon Bulb. A bulb or lamp filled with the inert gas which lights when an AC or DC voltage potential is applied to the terminals of the bulb. For most applications the LED has replaced the Neon bulb.

Nesting. In computer programming, a sub-routine embedded within another sub-routine.

Network. A combination of electrical components. In a parallel circuit it is composed of two or more branches. Network Topologies

A Network is any connection of two or more computers that enables them to communicate. Networks may include transmission devices, servers, cables, routers and satellites. The phone network is the total infrastructure for transmitting phone messages.

Network Architecture. The design principles, physical configuration, functional organization, operational procedures, and data formats used as the bases for the design, construction, modification, and operation of a communications network.

Network Interface Card. [NIC] A PC card used to interface between a communication network [Ethernet] and the personal computer.

Neutral. In a normal condition, hence neither positive nor negative. A neutral object has a normal number of electrons (the same number as protons). A current-carrying conductor normally tied to ground so that the electrical potential is zero. In ac power distribution, the conductor that (a) is intentionally grounded on the supply side of the service disconnect and (b) provides a current return path for ac power currents. At ground potential (0 volts) because of a connection to ground.

Neutralization. The process of counteracting or "neutralizing" the effects of inter-electrode capacitance.

Newton's Second Law of Motion. If an unbalanced outside force acts on a body, the resulting acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the force, is in the direction of the force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

Nibble. Four consecutive bits, or half of a byte.

Nichrome Wire. A wire sometimes used in wirewound resistors. For more information see Characteristics of Nichrome Wire.

Nines Complement. Text in review.

Nixie Tube. A vacuum tube that contained wires in the shape of numbers or wires that would light when powered.

PC motherboard

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