Engineering Dictionary of Electronic Terms
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Ga' to 'Ge', 'Gf' to 'Groum', 'Groun' to 'Gz'

Ground. [GND] The point in a circuit used as a common reference point for measuring purposes. To connect some point of an electrical circuit or some item of electrical equipment to earth or to the conducting medium used in lieu thereof. A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between a circuit or piece of equipment and the earth, or some body serving as earth. A place of zero electrical potential. [Circuit Ground, Chassis Ground, Rack Ground, Earth Ground]. A common return path that may not necessarily be connected to earth and is the zero voltage reference level for the equipment or system.

Ground Bounce. Ground bounce refers to the ringing on an output signal when one or more outputs on the same device are being switched from HIGH to LOW. Ground bounce is associated with the inductance and resistance of the ground connection in the integrated circuit. More detailed definition of Ground Bounce.

Ground Clutter. Unwanted echoes, from surrounding land masses, that appear on a radar indicator. [Radar terms, and definitions]

Ground-Controlled Approach. A radar system used to guide aircraft to safe landings in poor visibility conditions.

Ground Current. In the presence of an electrical fault, the current that flows in the protective ground wire of a power distribution system.

Ground Fault. An unintended flow of current from a conductor, which is operating at some potential above ground, to ground. Loss of current from a circuit to a ground connection.

Ground Fault Interrupter. [GFI] A protective device that detects abnormal current flowing to ground and then interrupts the circuit. Detailed Ground Fault Interrupter definition.

GFI Outlet Receptacle

Ground Island. A small copper layer contained on one or more layers of a Printed Wiring Board which is only connected to ground. A Ground Island is always much smaller than a ground plane. Ground Islands may be 100% copper fill or hatched to reduce the amount of copper. Refer to PWB terms and definitions.

Ground Loop. An unwanted current that flows in a conductor connecting two points that are nominally at the same potential but are actually at different potentials. Read more on Ground Loops.

Ground Lug. The end of a grounding cable. Read more on Grounding an Equipment Chassis, or Grounding an Equipment Rack.

Ground Pin Current. [Voltage Regulator] is the regulator quiescent current plus pass transistor base current. Ground Pin Current is defined as the amount of current required by the regulator when driving a load. Ground Pin Current varies with regulator input voltage and regulator load. The lower the Ground Pin Current the more efficient the device is. Power consumption of a voltage regulator may be found by multiplying the Ground Pin Current and the difference in voltage across the device [Vo/Vi]. [IC General] the current flowing through the ground pin; however this is not a definition in common usage.

Ground Plane. A large copper layer contained on one or more layers of a Printed Wiring Board [PWB] which is only connected to ground. In most cases a ground plane covers most if not all of the PWB layer it resides on. An electrically conductive surface that serves as the near-field reflection point for an antenna. The portion of a ground-plane antenna that acts as ground.

Ground-Plane Antenna. A type of antenna that uses a ground plane as a simulated ground to produce low-angle radiation. [Antenna terms, and definitions]

Ground Planes. Copper planes used to minimize interference between circuits and from external sources. The large islands or complete planes are connected to ground.

Ground Potential. Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth. The voltage a grounded part should have. The zero reference level used to apply and measure voltages in a system.

Ground Range. The distance on the surface of the earth between a radar and its target. Equal to slant range only if both radar and target are at the same altitude.

Ground Reflection Loss. The loss of RF energy each time a radio wave is reflected from the earth's surface.

Ground Reflective Wave: A wave that reaches the receiving antenna after being reflective off the ground.

Ground-Return Circuit. A circuit using a common return path that is at ground potential. A circuit in which there is a common return path, whether or not connected to earth.

Ground Rod. An earth electrode subsystem installed by the responsible facilities engineering activities at each facility to provide a low resistance path to earth for lightning and power fault currents and ensure that hazardous voltages do not occur within the facility. This subsystem shall be capable of dissipating to earth the energy of direct lightning strokes with no ensuing degradation to itself. This system shall also interconnect all driven electrodes and underground metal objects of the facility. The earth electrode [Ground Rod] subsystem shall not degrade the quality of signals in the signal circuits connected to it. The rods shall be interconnected with a 1/0 AWG (American Wire Gage) bare copper cable buried at least .45m (1.5 feet) below grade level. Larger size cables as well as greater burial depths shall be specified where earth and atmosphere considerations so dictate. The interconnecting cable shall be brazed or welded to each ground rod and shall close on itself to form a complete loop with the ends brazed or welded together.

Ground Screen. A series of conductors buried below the surface of the earth and arranged in a radial pattern. Used to reduce losses in the ground for antenna's Note there is a separate section that covers Antenna Definitions.

Ground Waves. Radio waves which travel near the surface of the earth.

Group. A collection of units, assemblies, sub-assemblies, and parts. It is a subdivision of a set or system but is not capable of performing a complete operational function.

Group Delay. The delay of a group of frequencies compared to a group of other frequencies; high frequency signals being delayed more than low frequency signals. Group delay results in signal distortion for example when high frequency harmonics are delayed compared to low frequency harmonics. The rate of change of the total phase shift with respect to angular frequency through a device or transmission medium. The derivative of radian phase with respect to radian frequency [Group Delay].

Group Velocity. The forward progress velocity of a wave front in a waveguide. The velocity of propagation of an envelope produced when an electromagnetic wave is modulated by, or mixed with, other waves of different frequencies.

Grown Junction. A method of mixing P-type and N-type impurities into a single crystal while the crystal is being grown.

Guard Band. A vacant frequency band, adjacent to an active band, that lessen the chance of interference between frequency channels. The unrecorded space between two adjacent recorded tracks on the magnetic tape.

Guarding. A covering or barrier that separates you from live electrical parts.

Guidance Radar. A system which provides information that is used to guide a missile to a target. [Radar terms, and definitions]

Guide Pin. An elongated pin on a connector that extends past the others so the mating connector aligns correctly with the pins.

Gull-Wing. A style of surface mount package that has its pins flare out from the body of the component. Refer to the listing of Surface Mount Packages for other styles of SMD devices.

Gunn Diode. See Diode Terms.

Gyroscope. A mechanical device containing a spinning mass mounted so that it can assume any position in space. The abbreviation for gyroscope is Gyro.

PC motherboard

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