Technical Engineering Terms
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Ca' to 'Cas', 'Cat' to 'Cg', 'Ch', 'Ci' to 'Cl', 'Cm' to 'Com',
'Com', 'Com' to 'Con', 'Con' to 'Coo', 'Cop' to 'Cq', 'Cr', 'Cs' to 'Cz'

Current. The movement of electrons past a reference point. The passage of electrons through a conductor. Measured in amperes.

Current Mirror. A circuit that mirrors or copies the current of another circuit. The circuit in the side-bar to the right shows a two transistor current mirror, with current flow in one transistor copied to the other transistor.

Current Mode Logic. [CML] A non-saturating logic family that uses differential inputs and outputs [800mV swing]. Also termed Source-Coupled Logic [SCL]. Read more on the Different Logic Families.

Current Probe. A device used to measure current, assumed to be the clamp type that does not require the circuit to be broken in order to obtain the current measurement.

Current Rating. The safe current-carrying capacity of a wire or cable on a continuous basis. See AWG [wire gauge].

Current Regulator. A circuit that provides a constant current output. Refer to Constant Current Source

Current Standing-Wave Ratio. [ISWR] The ratio of maximum to minimum current along a transmission line.

Current Transformer. [CT] A transformer used to measure current in a circuit by placing the primary winding of the transformer in series with the circuit being measured. A current transformer is used to supply information for measuring power flows and the electrical inputs for the operation of protective relays associated with the transmission and distribution circuits or for power transformers. These current transformers have the primary winding connected in series with the conductor carrying the current to be measured or controlled. The secondary winding is thus insulated from the high voltage and can then be connected to low-voltage metering circuits.

Cutoff. The condition in a tube or transistor whereby the reverse bias prevents current flow. A condition or frequency above or below which a circuit fails to respond. A minimum value of voltage or current applied to an active device which stops the device from operating in a particular manner. The point at which the current through a transistor [or other device] is cut off by the action of the Base [or control electrode]. The point at which the minimum base current allows a transistor to conduct, below which the transistor stops conducting.

Cutoff Frequency. The 3dB point of a filter at which point the filter starts to attenuate the signal. The frequency either above which or below which the output of a circuit, such as a line, amplifier, or filter, is reduced to a specified level, normally 0.707 times the maximum gain. The frequency at which the attenuation of a waveguide increases sharply and below which a traveling wave in a given mode cannot be maintained. A frequency with a half wavelength that is greater than the wide dimension of a waveguide. The frequency that marks the pass-band of a filter.

CW Demodulator. A circuit that detects the presence of RF oscillations and converts them into a useful form.

Cycle. One complete positive and one complete negative alternation of a current or voltage. A 360-degree rotation of a vector generating a sine wave. A cycle is measured in Hertz, Hz.

Sine wave Cycyle

Cycle Life. Number of discharge-charge cycles that a battery can tolerate under specified conditions before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance (e.g., capacity decreases to 80-percent of the nominal capacity).

Cyclic Redundancy Code. See CRC.

PC motherboard

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