Technical Engineering Terms
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Ca' to 'Cas', 'Cat' to 'Cg', 'Ch', 'Ci' to 'Cl', 'Cm' to 'Com',
'Com', 'Com' to 'Con', 'Con' to 'Coo', 'Cop' to 'Cq', 'Cr', 'Cs' to 'Cz'

Crash. The breakdown in a hardware system [ie Disk Crash] or software system [ie OS Crash, Blue screen].

CRC. [Cyclic Redundancy Code] The term "CRC" seems to be reserved for algorithms that are based on the "polynomial" division. The essential mathematical operation in the calculation of a CRC is binary division, and the remainder from the division determines the CRC. CRC's cannot, however, be safely relied upon to verify data integrity. CRC types are often identified by the polynomial, which is the number used as the divisor. A number of pages on this site make reference to the CRC used for different electronic Interface Buses.

Crest. [Top] The peak of the positive alternation (maximum value above the line) of a wave.

Crimp. The physical compression (deformation) of a contact barrel around a conductor to make an electrical and mechanical connection to the conductor [Wire Crimp shown right]. Crimp contacts are assembled to conductors outside of the connector and are subsequently installed into the connector body. When a connector is properly assembled, contacts are captured inside the connector. Retaining clips are one means of securing contacts in place inside connector cavities. When retaining clips are present, contacts shall be fully seated and locked into place by the clip. Improperly seated contacts can "push back" causing intermittent and open circuits. In all instances, non-metal contact insertion and removal tools shall be used to prevent damage to connectors, contacts, or conductors.

Crimp Contact. A hollow barrel or winged-contact which accepts a wire. See the crimp contact in the right side-bar.

Critical Angle. The maximum angle at which radio waves can be transmitted and still be refracted back to earth.

Critical Damping. The amount of damping that prevents overshoot. See Damping for a graphic. An operation that is not underdamped or overdamped.

Critical Frequency. The maximum frequency at which a radio wave can be transmitted vertically and still be refracted back to earth.

Crossbar Switch. A number of switches formed into a matrix so that may interconnect with another allowing any input line to connect to any output line. A switch that has a plurality of vertical paths and a plurality of horizontal paths, interconnecting any one of the vertical paths to any one of the horizontal paths.

Cross Coupling. The coupling of a signal from one channel, circuit, or conductor to another, where it is usually considered to be an undesired signal.

Crossed-Field Amplifier. A high-power electron tube that converts dc to microwave power by a combination of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Crossed-Over Adapter. A networking module that internally swaps the Transmit and Receive wires.

Crossed-Over Cable. A networking cable that internally swaps the Tx and Rx wires, allowing direct connection between devices.

Cross-over Adapter module
Crossover Adapter

Crossover Distortion. The distortion in the output waveform caused by the time delay between one transistor cutting-off and the other transistor turning on in a push-pull amplifier [transfer curve to the right].

Crossover Frequency. A frequency at which a signal is separated or passed onto another circuit. A signal that is crossed-over from a woofer to a tweeter at a particular frequency [band]. The actual cross-over frequency would be the 3dB point of the filter used as the cross-over network.

Crossover Network. A passive filter designed to separate different audio frequencies into different paths or speakers. A filter network that separates frequencies into bands to be sent on different circuit paths. For example one frequency band is sent to a woofer while another frequency band is sent to the tweeter. Read more on Audio Crossover Networks.

Cross-Sectional Area. The area of a "slice" of an object. When applied to electrical conductors it is usually expressed in circular mils.

Cross-Talk. The unintended or undesired capacitive, inductive, or conductive coupling from one circuit, or channel to another. Unwanted sound in a voice channel cross-coupled from another voice channel. Any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel. Interference.

Crowbar. A method of shorting out a power supply when an over-voltage occurs to protect the electronics being supplied. A term used to indicate that something is being shorted as in placing a crowbar between the terminals. A circuit form by an over-voltage sense circuit and an SCR. The gate of the SCR connects to the sense circuit while the anode and cathode are connected to the supply rails.

Crowbar Circuit
SCR Crowbar Circuit

CRT. Cathode Ray Tube [Dictionary of Radar Terms].

Crystal. A natural substance, such as quartz or tourmaline, that is capable of producing a voltage when under physical stress or of producing physical movement when a voltage is applied. Also refer to XTAL Manufacturers listing. A solid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged with a degree of geometric regularity.

Schematic symbol for a crystal
Crystal Symbol

Crystal Controlled Oscillator. An oscillator that uses a quartz crystal to determine the frequency of operation. Normally an oscillator circuit or component that is designed to function with another component, so outputs a compatible signal, TTL logic levels for example, as shown in the lower right side-bar.

Crystal Filter. A filter circuit that uses a piezoelectric crystal to provide the resonance in the circuit.

Crystal Furnace. A device for artificially growing cylindrical crystals to be used in the production of semiconductor substrates.

Crystal Microphone. A microphone that uses the piezoelectric effect of crystalline matter to generate a voltage from sound waves. [Microphone Manufacturers]

Crystal Mixer. An out dated term for a diode mixer.

Crystal Oscillator. [XO] An oscillator in which the frequency is controlled by a piezoelectric crystal. A component that consists of both a crystal and an oscillator.

14.318MHz Crystal Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator

Crystal Oven. A closed oven maintained at a constant temperature in which a crystal and its holder are enclosed to reduce frequency drift. Companies making Temperature Controlled Oscillators.

Crystal Speaker. See Piezoelectric Speaker.

PC motherboard

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