Terms used by Engineers
"A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Aa' to 'Ac', 'Ad' to 'Af', 'Ag' to 'Al', 'Am',
'An' to 'Ao', 'Ap' to 'As', 'At' to 'Az',

Analog Decoding. The portion of the digital-to-analog conversion process that generates an analog signal value from the digital signal that resulted from analog encoding.

Analog Encoding: The portion of the analog-to-digital conversion process that samples an analog signal and creates a digital signal that represents the value of the sample.

Analog Signal. A signal that has a continuous nature rather than a pulsed or discrete nature.

Analog Switch. An integrated circuit that switches an analog signal using a digital control line. Normally a FET is used as the actual switch. Analog Switch manufactures. Switching equipment designed, designated, or used to connect circuits between users for real-time transmission of analog signals.

Analog-to-Digital Converter. [ADC] A device that converts an analog signal to a digital signal that represents equivalent information.

AND Gate. An electronic gate whose output is energized only when every input is in its prescribed state. An AND gate performs the function of the logical "AND"; also called an AND circuit. A binary circuit, with two or more inputs and a single output, in which the output is a logic 1 only when all inputs are a logic 1 and the output is a logic 0 when any one of the inputs is a logic 0. [IC Manufacturers]

AND-OR. Some number of AND logic functions feeding a signal OR function so that the product of all the AND functions are OR together. A 7451 TTL Gate.

Anechoic Chamber. An enclosure that produces low sound or electromagnetic wave reflections.

Angle. Formed when two straight lines meet at a point.

Angle Modulation. Modulation in which the angle of a sine-wave carrier is varied by a modulating wave. Modulation in which the phase or frequency of a sinusoidal carrier is varied.

Angle of Deflection. The angle of an electron beam induced by the deflection coils of a Cathode Ray Tube

Angle of Deviation. In optics, the net angular deflection experienced by a light ray after one or more refractions or reflections.

Angle of Lag. The phase [angle] difference between two sinusoidal waveforms.

Angstrom. 10-10 meter.

Angstrom Unit. The unit used to define the wavelength of light waves.

Anisochronous. Pertaining to transmission in which the time interval separating any two significant instants in sequential signals is not necessarily related to the time interval separating any other two significant instants.

Anisotropic. The property of a radiator that allows it to emit strong radiation in one direction. anisotropic: Pertaining to a material whose electrical or optical properties vary with the direction of propagation of a traveling wave or with different polarizations of a traveling wave.

Anneal. To soften and relieve strains in any solid material, such as metal or glass, by heating to just below its melting point and then slowly cooling it. This also generally lowers the tensile strength of the material, while improving its flex life.

Annealed Wire. A wire that was softened by heating.

Annular Ring. The portion of a conductive material that completely surrounds a hole. See Minimum Annular Ring for more data and a graphic.

Anode. A positive electrode of an electrochemical device (such as a primary or secondary electric cell) toward which the negative ions are drawn.

Diode Anode
Diode Anode

The semiconductor-diode terminal that is positive with respect to the other terminal when the diode is biased in the forward direction. Also refer to Diode Definitions.

Anodize. To apply a coating of oxide on a metal by electrolytic process.

ANSI. American National Standards Institute.

Antenna. An aerial. A conductor or set of conductors used to radiate RF energy into space or to collect RF energy from space or to do both. [Antenna Manufacturers], [Definition of Antenna Terms]. Any structure or device used to collect or radiate electromagnetic waves. A device that converts radio frequency electrical energy to radiated electromagnetic energy and vice versa; in a transmitting station, the device from which radio waves are emitted.

Antenna Beam Width. Width of a radar beam measured between half-power points. [Radar Terms]

Antenna Coupler. A device used for impedance matching between an antenna and a transmitter or receiver.

Antenna Gain. A measure of the output of an antenna compared to a standard antenna using the same frequency. Read more on Antenna Gain.

Antenna Pattern. A graphical representation of the radiation properties of an antenna as a function of space coordinates. Refer to the definition of Radiation Pattern, as part of the antenna dictionary.

Antenna System. Routes RF energy from the transmitter, radiates the energy into space, receives echoes, and routes the echoes to the receiver. [Antenna Tracking Systems]

Anti-Node. A point in a standing wave at which the amplitude is a maximum.

Antipads. are clearances to provide separation between vias and voltage planes to avoid shorting the signals to the voltage rails as the via traverses the Printed Wiring Board. The diameter of the Antipad should be minimized to reduce EMI effects, but maximized to decrease shorting and voltage breakdown of adjacent signals. Definitions of Printed Wiring Board Terms.

Antiseize Compound. A silicon-based, high-temperature lubricant applied to threaded components to aid in their removal after they have been subjected to rapid heating and cooling.

Antistatic. An antistatic material resists triboelectric charging upon contact and separation with another material. Plastic materials impregnated with antistatic agents (antistats) are antistatic if their surface resistivity is between 109 and 1014 ohms/square. Also refer to the dictionary section on ESD Terms.

PC motherboard

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