Engineering Dictionary
"A" "B" "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

"B" to "Bas", "Bat" to "Bim", "Bin" to "Bn",
"Bo" to "Bq", "Br" to "Buq", "Bur" to "Bz"

Braid. A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven to form a protective covering over one or more wires. Also refer to the Cable Armor Definition.

Braid [Fiber]: An essential part of many fiber-optic cable designs, consisting of a layer of woven yarn. Note: In the case of single-fiber loose-buffered or two-fiber "zip-cord" loose-buffered fiber-optic cables, the braid is situated between the buffer tube and jacket. In the case of cables having multiple buffer tubes, the braid is usually situated between the inner jacket and outer jacket. Loosely, an unwoven parallel bundle of yarn situated around the tight buffer of a single-fiber or two-fiber "zip-cord" fiber-optic cable. Notes: The braid serves to add tensile strength to the cable. The braid may also be anchored to an optical connector or splice organizer assembly to secure the end of the cable. The braid is often of an aramid yarn.

Braided Wire. A wire composed of some number of smaller wires which are woven together. For more detail refer to Wire Braid used with Cable.

Branch. An individual current path in a parallel circuit.

Breadboard. A board used to test, develop or evaluate a circuits functionality A graphic of a solderless breadboard is shown in the right side-bar. The companion site shows an enlarged view of a Solderless Breadboard. A Breadboard or protoboard could be any style of circuit board used to fabricate a prototype circuit to include a Printed Circuit Board [PCB] with pre-drilled holes for components, or an array of solder pads for surface mount devices in addition to a Solderless Breadboard.

Break. An interruption in a circuit. In a switch, the number of breaks refers to the number of points at which the switch opens the circuit; for example, single break and double break, which are the number of pairs of separated contacts the switch introduces into each circuit it opens.

Break-before-Make. Switch contacts which interrupt one circuit before establishing the previous one.

Breakdown. The phenomenon occurring in a reverse-biased semiconductor diode. The start of the phenomenon is a transition from a high dynamic resistance to one of substantially lower dynamic resistance.

Breakdown. A disruptive discharge through insulation, involving a sudden and large increase in current through the insulation because of complete failure under electrostatic stress, also called puncture.

Breakdown Voltage. The voltage at which an insulator or dielectric ruptures, or at which ionization and conduction take place in a gas or vapor. The breakdown voltage is the maximum instantaneous voltage, including repetitive and non-repetitive transients, which can be applied across a junction in the reverse direction without an external means (circuit) of limiting the current. It is also the instantaneous value of reverse voltage at which a transition commences from a region of high small-signal impedance to a region of substantially lower small-signal impedance.

Breakout. The point at which the conductors of a cable are separated to complete a circuit, as in a Break-Out-Board.

Breakout Board. See BOB card.

Breakout Cable. A cable that translates one form of connector [at one end] into a number of other connector styles [at the far end], normally the cables are translated using separate jacketed cables.

Brick. A small encapsulated power supply, usually mounted on a printed wiring board.

Bridge Circuit. A circuit used for electrical measurements. A Wheatstone Bridge is shown as a example of one of a number of different bridge styles. The Wheatstone Bridge is used to measure an unknown resistance, Rx. One branch of the bridge needs to be adjustable, in this case R2.

Wheatstone Bridge circuit

Bridge-T Network. A three element impedance network in the shape of a 'T', that uses a forth impedance element in parallel with the two elements forming the top of the 'T'. Also refer to Passive Filter Definition.

Bridge Rectifier. A bridge circuit consisting of 4 separate diodes which function as a full wave rectifier. Bridge Rectifier Circuit Description. A 4 diode bridge produced using either 4 discrete diodes, or a single package containing all four diodes [see the graphic to the right].

RS207 Diode Bridge Rectifier

Brightness Control. The name given to the potentiometer used to vary the brightness of a monitor. Also refer to the Potentiometer Definition, within the dictionary of resistor terms.

British Thermal Unit. [Btu] The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60 degrees F to 61 degrees F at one atmosphere pressure.

Broadside Array. An array in which the direction of maximum radiation is perpendicular to the plane containing the elements. Refer to the Dictionary of Antenna Terms.

Brushes. Sliding contacts, usually carbon, that make electrical connection to the rotating part of a motor or generator. The contact point between the rotating and stationary part of a machine.

Buck Converter. See Buck Regulator.

Buck Regulator. A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Also refer to DC-to-DC Voltage Converters, related page Voltage Regulator Manufacturers.

Buffer. An IC that isolates one circuit from another, as in a 7404 or 74244 Octal Buffer, [TTL vendors]. A voltage amplifier used between the oscillator and power amplifier. An allocation of memory space for temporary storage. A component or circuit that compensates for a difference in data transfer rates and data processing rates [a FIFO for example].

Buffer Amplifier. An amplifier that isolates one circuit from another. A Buffer, for example decreases the loading effect on an oscillator by reducing the interaction between the load and the oscillator. A Transistor Buffer circuit.

Buffered Delay Line. An analog delay line with a buffered output. A Delay Line that is compatible with digital logic by buffering the input and output so normal digital logic may interface with the I/O. A delay line that uses a buffer to compensate for the signal lose as it passed through the delay circuit. Related terms; Tapped Delay Line, UnTapped Delay Line.

14-Pin Buffered Delay Line Device
Buffered Delay Line

Buffer Memory. A faster memory placed between two circuits that is used to make a larger system memory appear faster, as in cache memory. A FIFO or other similar memory element used to buffer or even out the read-write speed between to circuits. A dual-port memory.

Buffer Storage. Same as buffer memory.

Bug. A fault or defect, normally considered to be designed into the circuit.

Built-In Test Equipment. [BITE] A permanently mounted device that is used expressly for testing an equipment or system. Also refer to System Test Acronyms.

Bulb. A light bulb. The shape of the glass covering a lamp filament. A glass bulb takes on many shapes, including the standard shape used by a flash light bulb.

Flash-Light Bulb

Bulkhead Connector. An electrical fitting with electrical contacts designed to be mounted on a bulkhead, chassis, panel, wall, or the like. A bulkhead connector allows electrical continuity of a cable assembly through bulkhead or the like. A bulkhead connector may have insulating elements, a hood or shell, screws and means for polarizing and aligning.

Bumpon Small plastic stick-on bumps used to protect a surface. Sometime used as feet for the bottom of a surface, or table-top chassis or case. Normally a Bumpons has a pressure sensitive adhesive backing so that it may be attached to another surface. A Bumpon may be made of additional materials other than Polyurethane, and could be made of almost any color including transparent.

Buncher Cavity. The input resonant cavity in a conventional klystron oscillator.

Buncher Grid. In a velocity-modulated tube, the grid that concentrates the electrons in the electron beam into bunches.

Bundle. A group of individual wires or cables tied together or held with in a single jacket.

PC motherboard

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