Communication Definitions
"A" to :Asc", "Asy" to "Bc", "Be" to "Bi",
"Bl" to "Cz", "D" to "E", "F" to "L",
"M" to "Mod", "Mu" to "Nu", "O" to "Z"

B8ZS: Abbreviation for bipolar with eight-zero substitution. A T-carrier line code in which bipolar violations are deliberately inserted if user data contains a string of 8 or more consecutive zeros. B8ZS is used to ensure a sufficient number of transitions to maintain system synchronization when the user data stream contains an insufficient number of ones to do so. B8ZS is used in the European hierarchy at the T1 rate.

BER: Abbreviation for bit error ratio.

Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD): Pertaining to the representation of a decimal digit by a unique arrangement of no fewer than four binary digits.

Binary Modulation: The process of varying a parameter of a carrier as a function of two finite, discrete states.

Bipolar Signal: A signal that may assume either of two polarities, neither of which is zero. A bipolar signal may have a two-state non- return-to-zero (NRZ) or a three-state return-to-zero (RZ) binary coding scheme. A bipolar signal is usually symmetrical with respect to zero amplitude, i.e., the absolute values of the positive and negative signal states are nominally equal.

Bit Error Ratio (BER): The number of erroneous bits divided by the total number of bits transmitted, received or processed over some stipulated period. Note 1: Examples of bit error ratio are (a) transmission BER, i.e, the number of erroneous bits received divided by the total number of bits transmitted; and (b) information BER, i.e., the number of erroneous decoded (corrected) bits divided by the total number of decoded (corrected) bits. Note 2: The BER is usually expressed as a coefficient and power of 10; for example, 2.5 erroneous bits out of 100,000 bits transmitted would be 2.5 out of 105 or 2.5 x 10-5.

Bit Rate (BR): In a bit stream, the number of bits occurring per unit time, usually expressed in bits per second. Note: For n-ary operation, the bit rate is equal to log n times the rate (in baud), where 2 n is the number of significant conditions in the signal.

Bits per second: [b/s] A unit used to express the number of bits passing a designated point per second. Note 1: For example, for two-condition serial transmission in a single channel in which each significant condition represents a bit, i.e., a 0 or a 1, the bit rate in bits per second and the baud have the same numerical value only if each bit occurs in a unit interval. In this case, the data signaling rate in bits per second is 1/T, where T is the unit interval. The abbreviation bps is not in accordance with international standards, and is deprecated.

Bit Slip: In digital transmission, the loss of a bit or bits, caused by variations in the respective clock rates of the transmitting and receiving devices. Note: One cause of bit slippage is overflow of a receive buffer that occurs when the transmitters clock rate exceeds that of the receiver. This causes one or more bits to be dropped for lack of storage capacity.

Bit synchronous operation: Operation in which data circuit terminating equipment (DCE), data terminal equipment (DTE), and transmitting circuits are all operated in bit synchronism with a clock. In bit synchronous operation, clock timing is usually delivered at twice the modulation rate, and one bit is transmitted or received during each clock cycle. Bit synchronous operation is sometimes erroneously referred to as digital synchronization.

PC motherboard

Distributor rolodex Electronic Components Electronic Equipment EDA CDROM Software Engineering Standards, BOB card Cabled Computer Bus Electronic Engineering Design Table Conversion DB9-to-DB25.
DistributorsComponents Equipment Software Standards Buses Design Reference