Technical Terms used in Radar Engineering
"A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M",
"N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"

'Ca' to 'Coh', 'Coi' to 'Cz'

Coincidence Detector: This radar video process requires more than one hit in a range cell before a target is displayed. This prevents video interference from pulses coming from another radar, because such interference is unlikely to occur twice in the same range cell.

Collimation: The procedure of aligning fire control radar system antenna axes with optical line of sight, thereby ensuring that the radars will provide for correct target illumination and guidance beam positioning.

Command Code: Modulations superimposed upon transmitter carrier signals to provide electronic instructions to an airborne guided missile or pilot-less aircraft. The receiver of the remotely guided vehicle is preset to accept only a selected transmitter code to eliminate the possibility of the vehicle responding to commands of extraneous signals.

Command Guidance: A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted to the missile from an outside source causes the missile to traverse a directed flight path.

Conical Scan: Scanning in which the movement of the beam describes a cone, the axis of which coincides with that of the reflector. Also refer to the definition of Antenna Nutating.

Contact: An object that reflects rf energy; as from a target.

Cooperative Countermeasures: Generic term for jamming the same threat radar from two or more separate platforms that are in the same radar resolution cell.

Corner Reflector: Two flat reflectors that meet at an angle and are normally fed by a half-wave radiator. Also refer to the separate section on Antenna Definitions and related terms.

Corner Reflector

Coupling Factor: A multiplying factor, expressed in dB, used to express the change in EM energy intensity from a radar transmitter to a receiver. The factor includes the antenna gains and the loss (basic transmission loss) caused by the distance between the antennas. The factor will usually be a negative dB figure (a reduction in intensity) because basic transmission loss is always a large negative value. The antenna gains may be positive (pointed toward each other) or negative (no main beam interactions).

Crossed-Field Amplifier: High-power electron tube that converts DC to microwave power by a combination of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Cross Modulation: Intermodulation caused by modulation of the carrier by an undesired signal wave.

CW: [Continuous Wave] In radar and EW systems this term means that the transmitter is on constantly; i.e., not pulsed (100% duty cycle). These systems may frequency or phase modulate the transmitter output. A CW radar has the ability to distinguish moving targets against a stationary background while conserving spectrum bandwidth compared to pulsed radar requirements. A CW radar extracts accurate target range-rate data but cannot determine target range.

CWI: [Continuous Wave Illuminator] A surface or aircraft-based CW transmitter employed in semi-active homing missile systems where the transmitter illuminates the target and the missile senses the reflected energy. The transmitter also provides a reference signal to the missile rear receiver to allow determination of range-rate data and target identification.

Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector: A parabolically shaped reflector that resembles part of a cylinder, as seen to the right.

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